masculinity hypothesis criminology

Masculinities. Pre-feminist criminology The earliest theories of criminology relied mainly on indispensable ‘sex roles’ frame work to be able to explain the relationship that exists between crime and masculinity. The issue of masculinity and its link to criminal behavior in men has been identified in both past and present discussions of criminological thought. Appropriate presentation of masculine display is expected based on the shared understanding (Polk, 1997:130). 1985. Kersten, Joachim. Freedom, CA : Crossing Press. First, a category that contains positive social outlets, such as successful parenting and job satisfaction would be a way to assess successful masculinity.

The Subculture of violence: towards an integrated theory in criminology. 1996.

Cavender, Gary. There are several plausible reasons the masculinity and violence hypotheses failed.

151-174. Therefore, if traditional, non-criminal resources are not available, alternative resources, even criminal resources, will be used to accomplish masculine gender (Messerschmidt, 1993). Wolfgang, Marvin and Franco Ferracuti. It is the differing levels of these traits that are being examined in the current investigation. 1993. Although many studies make mention of masculinity being intertwined with violent behavior, few have put the idea to an empirical test. 1999.

Hearn, Jeff and David H. Morgan. Scoring high on a traditional scale measuring general masculinity is different than scoring high on a scale measuring hegemonic masculinity. Special thanks to Dr. Julie Horney, PI, for her invaluable help during this process. 1994. Since Messerschmidt’s masculinity hypothesis in 1993, little empirical work has been conducted. Full-time work in the paid labor force is an acceptable outlet for accomplishing masculinity. To better address Messerschmidt’s 1993 hypothesis, a dichotomous variable measuring high risk masculine men was created. Criminology. “Sex roles: the measurement of masculinity.” in Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, edited by J. P. Robinson and P. R. Shaver. Bourgois, Philippe I. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, 1994. T-tests showed statistical significance at the .05 level for this variable. It begins with an overview of traditional criminology that either ignored or had a skewed understanding of the nature of the crime–masculinity connection, focusing instead on biology, which often considered crime as a reflection of defective male and female bodies/identities. 1996. 1995.

The development of a masculine criminology is something that has been missing from much of the criminological literature.


“Advantages of Hierarchical Linear Modeling.” Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 7. In fact, the National Research Council’s report “Understanding and Preventing Violence” failed to even mention gender as a social process that could lead to violence (Reiss and Roth, 1993). 1997. Kimmel, Michael S and Michael A. Messner (eds). Similarly, the addition of traditional outlets to assert masculinity did not significantly enhance the understanding of violent incidents. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. New York: Lexington Books. A different problem with traditional outlets is the use of only traditional outlets to assert masculinity. The existence of several less appropriate outlets for a man to prove masculinity is an important area to explore in the future. Although the idea of appropriate traditional outlets addresses the issue of perceived status, personal satisfaction may play a large role in how one believes others perceive them. If a man has a job that he enjoys, that may be seen as a better way to assert masculinity than just having a job. Although logistic regression doesn’t account for the nested structure of the data, it is less problematic than the use of the summed scale in HLM.

These are all traditional, conventional, examples of how one can “do gender.” It is when these traditional means of demonstrating masculinity are stifled, or do not exist, that violent behavior is most likely to occur (Messerschmidt, 1993:81). “Crime in the United States 1998: Uniform Crime Reports.”. New York: Pantheon. “The streets and violence.” in Violent transactions: the limits of personality, edited by A. Campbell and J. Gibbs. This re-creation occurs in the family, at work, in school, and in all other social settings. Third, future efforts need to include both men and women in the sample. Applied Logistic Regression Analysis. When examining the items that make up the MMPI-2 subscales, these elements are hard to detect. The idea of “doing gender” was introduced by West and Zimmerman in 1987. Structured interviews were conducted with 704 newly incarcerated offenders at the Diagnostic and Evaluation Center in Lincoln, Nebraska. Working off-campus? 1993. Reiss, Albert J. and Jeffrey A. Roth. All events fall into the two categories of this variable: Categories were created prior to data collection and separate collection instruments were used for each category. Furthermore, people who have used violence as a way to assert masculinity in the past, come to accept violence as an acceptable route to display their manhood. Until recently, there was little consideration given to the concept of masculinity as a tool for understanding men and criminal behaviour. The final hypothesis is that violent situations will be more likely to contain individuals with very masculine characteristics and few acceptable routes for asserting those characteristics. Masculinity must be performed and presented recurrently in any situation--constant self-presentation occurs throughout every social interaction in which a man is involved. 1998. St. Louis, MO: McGraw Hill. It is also important to examine factors outside the realm of masculinity. Although pushing, shoving, and grabbing have frequently been noted in literature as assaultive behavior, the original research from which data for the current study is drawn, defined an incident as non-violent if it stopped at this point. Although the status of being married may be important, the quality of the marriage may play an equally important role in masculine achievement. Showing ones manhood through sexual encounters has been theorized as an important aspect of masculinity by several researchers (Gilmore, 1990; Gutmann, 1997; Cavender, 1999). Characteristics of masculinity will be identified and operationalized to gain a greater understanding of the male role and its relation to violent crime. one person could give anywhere from 1 to 20 events). 1991. Messerschmidt (2000) discusses the occurrence of a “masculinity challenge” that may enhance the use of violence in a situation.

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