mad cow disease history
 Six months after inoculation, there was no infectivity in any tissues, only that of the ileum. From 1986 through 2001, a British outbreak affects about 180,000 cattle and devastates farming communities.
Accumulation of the abnormally folded PrPSc form of PrP is a characteristic of the disease, but it is present at very low levels in easily accessible body fluids such as blood or urine.  In the 5th century BC, Hippocrates described a similar illness in cattle and sheep, which he believed also occurred in man.  Cattle are believed to have been infected from being fed meat and bone meal (MBM) that contained the remains of other cattle who spontaneously developed the disease or scrapie-infected sheep products.
In addition, it is legal for ruminants to be fed byproducts from some of these animals. To control potential transmission of vCJD within the United States, the FDA had established strict restrictions on individuals' eligibility to donate blood. In June 2005, John R. Clifford, chief veterinary officer for the United States Department of Agriculture animal health inspection service, confirmed a fully domestic case of BSE in Texas. It is suspected that there also exists an atypical strain of BSE, which arises spontaneously (as opposed to orally through the ingestion of contaminated feed) and leads to a distinct prion disease characterized by a lack of pitted holes in the brain.  The agent can be transmitted to humans by eating food contaminated with it.
For many of the vCJD patients, direct evidence exists that they had consumed tainted beef, and this is assumed to be the mechanism by which all affected individuals contracted it. Omissions? Some animals may show a combination of these signs, while others may only be observed demonstrating one of the many reported.  Canada announced two additional cases of BSE from Alberta in early 2005. By 1996, BSE had been linked to a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a rare, degenerative brain disorder that leads to dementia and death. The disease is similar to the neurodegenerative disease of sheep called scrapie. They are so named because the brain tissue of organisms with the disease becomes pitted with holes in a spongelike pattern. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also called mad cow disease, a fatal neurodegenerative disease of cattle.
Newer tests[specify] are faster, more sensitive, and cheaper, so future figures possibly may be more comprehensive.
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The head was sent to a provincial laboratory in Edmonton where it sat for three-and-a-half months before it was tested, revealing the cow had BSE. , In October 2015 a case of BSE was confirmed at a farm in Carmarthenshire in Wales. Mad Cow Disease is a neurological disorder of cattle. , Soybean meal is cheap and plentiful in the United States, and cottonseed meal (1.5 million tons of which are produced in the U.S. every year, none of which is suitable for humans or any other simple-stomach animals) is even cheaper than soybean meal. In advanced stages the animal frequently loses weight, shows fine muscular contractions over its neck and body, walks in an abnormal and exaggerated manner, and may isolate itself from the herd.
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